Can Diabetic Ketone-acidosis Lead to Death?

Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Illustration of Ketoacidosis, credit to UCSF

Ketone-acidosis is a condition when body accumulates Ketone and blood sugar at very dangerous level. This state leads to blood to be acid, and harmful.

Why Ketone-acidosis is happen? It is because body lack or not enough insulin to be able to break down the sugar for energy.

Then, body uses fat as source of energy. Fat burning produces Ketone (acid) as called Ketone-acidosis.

Type 1 diabetic patients are vulnerable to Ketone-acidosis. If untreated in certain period (long term) could be life threatening, and even causes coma or death. 

It is because excessive acid in blood (due to extremely high Ketone) could cause body system ceases to function well.

The signs of diabetic Ketone-acidosis are:
- Hyperglycemia (higher blood sugar)
- Urination frequently which contains high Ketone level
- Fatigue (feel weakness)
- Unusual thirst
- Dry of skin and mouth
- Vomiting


Ketone-acidosis occurs in Type 1 diabetes patients
(credit to DiabeteStrong)

I make summary how to prevent diabetic Ketone-acidosis for type 1 diabetes patients, written by Mayo Clinic ( 2019):
- Manage diabetes through routine medication, quality diet and do proper exercise.
- Monitor blood sugar daily and maintain to normal range.
- Monitor Ketone level in urine by Ketone test kit.
- Sure, type 1 diabetes patients need to search emergency help as soon as possible if suspect to Ketoacidosis.

Just to let you know that about 30 million people face on diabetic Ketone-acidosis in the USA. 

Reference:
Mayo Clinic. 2019. Diabetic Keoacidosis. Retrieved from Mayo Clinic Org. 

Is a Thermal Camera Sold in Market?

Monday, October 28, 2019
One of thermal camera sold in market from FLIR

I just know that thermal camera cost is affordable now, may be quite late to aware about the price.

We can find price tags from hundred to about two thousand bucks. I think the reasonable price for amateurs like us is around US$ 127 to US$ 499.

Some important thermal camera brands sold in markets are:
- Flir
- Fluke
- Seek
- Perfect-Prime
- Leupold
- Pulsar Helion
- Firefield Nightfall


Thermal camera discovered breast cancer (credit to Sky News)

In case you do not know, thermal camera is a kind of device to detect temperatures which emit from objects.

The hotter temperature, the brighter colors will be the images, vice versa, the cooler represented darker images.

Brighter colors such as yellow, orange and red, while dark colors are black, dark blue and purples.

The objects include:
- human skins (neck, limbs, backs and underlying issues)
- animals or any living skins
- fires inside walls
- overheating comes from electrical wiring

In daily life, the thermal cameras are crucial tools for fire fighters or any rescue teams to save live from low visible (unseen) locations.

You may read article from Sky News recently that a woman shot by thermal camera while walking in the museum in Edinburg, England.

She compared the image with other woman, then she found “strange bright” color from her left breast. 

After detail diagnosed, she discovered early stage breast cancer which highly probability could be stopped by medical surgery.

Do you know about affordable thermal camera and plan to buy it?

MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment Unit 4 – Part 3

Saturday, October 26, 2019
Evening of summer, painted by Halfdan Johnsen Egedius


A Population:
19. Determine how many observations in the pop3.csv file are of type a: 33,333.

R code:
> counts<-data.frame(table(pop3))
> counts


20. Using the appropriate R function with the defaul options, what is the median of the time column of pop3 (round to 3 decimal places): 4.473

R Code:
> pop3 <- read.csv("pop3.csv")
> round(median(pop3$time), 3)
[1] 4.473


Portrait of Mari Clasen, painted by Halfdan Johnsen Egedius


21. What is the variance of the time column of pop3 (rounded to three decimal places)?
Answer: 54.916

R Code:
> round(var(pop3$time), 3)

[1] 54.916


Halfdan Johnsen Egedius was born in Norway in 1877

Can Reading Books Every Day Make Live Longer?

Thursday, October 24, 2019
Books in a library shelf

We may be read books either some times or every day, but not all of us aware that reading activities have great effect on many things to us.

There are plenty of benefits of reading (books, newspaper, magazine, novel), just for few examples are:
- improve memory
- better health
- improve family relationships (parents and kids)
- better sleep quality
- boosting brain
- improving vocabularies
- lower stress level
- better in empathizing

Reading regularly is similar to do exercises (treadmills, jogging, walking, push ups and riding a bike) or eating quality diets such as fruit and vegetables every day.


A front desk library, just for illustration

Researchers from Yale University observed 3,635 people for certain periods, then divided in 3 groups:
- who does not read books at all
- who reads a book every day
- who read a book for 3 and half hours a week.

After 12 years observation, the researchers found that group of people “who reads a book every day” live longer.

Readers with at least 30 minutes to read a book every day have live two years longer compared to who does not read books at all.

Interesting fact shown that who likes to read everyday mainly come from people with following status:
- female
- higher education (college degree)
- higher income

Do you like to read books or other reading sources? How many hours you read per day?

Can Immortal Jellyfish Defy Death?

Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Jellyfish trick to avoid death
(credit to science organization, Australia)

Many researches have been done to delay or reverse of human being aging, but we have no clues until now.

Yes, we might “reduce” negatives effect of old such as deterioration of health. Some methods have been successful to:
- improve cognitive ability
- improve physical performance

How about with other multi cellular creatures? Can they defies death?

Scientists know one tiny creature called as immortal jellyfish which is swimming in the ocean can live forever biologically.

Immortal jellyfish (Turritopsis dohrnii) size is so small just about 4.5 mm in length and width. Hence, barely visible. 

The creatures swim in almost in all oceans, both tropical and temperate seas, but they are abundant in tropical regions.


Immortal jellyfish in the ocean (credit to Krissy Howard)

Their life cycle is following (please see at the first Figure):
- Female medusae produce eggs, and males release sperms. Fertilized eggs develop to be Planula larvae.

- Planula attached to hard substance, then develop to Polyp stage

- Polyp produces “buds,” then develop to Ephyra, a small jellyfish

- Medusa is adult stage of jellyfish to reproduce eggs and sperms, then, back to early life cycle.

The question then: How jellyfish live everlasting?

Above life cycle is in the normal state. If medusa faces extreme conditions (starvation or injury), instead of dead, it reverts to be young phase by broken apart as tiny cells.

Then develop to be polyp, and so on. This process to escape death is called as biologically immortal. 

Can Abnormal Blood Sugar Lead to Seizure?

Sunday, October 20, 2019
Range of blood sugar level (credit to Melissa Conrad Stoppler)

Fluctuation in sugar level may be faced by both non-diabetic and diabetic patients on daily basis due to several factors:
- illness
- insulin level
- metabolic problems

So, what is normal range? General speaking, what we call as normal range of blood sugar level is from 70 mg/dL to 130 mg/dL.

Abnormal is a state where the level below or higher than normal range. The range of pre-diabetes and diabetes are following:
- 140 to 199 mg/dL, prediabetes range
- above 200 mg/dL, diabetes

Too lower or too higher if sugar level is under 54 mg/dL or above 400 mg/dL could be categorized as medical emergency.


Diabetic seizure, just for illustration
(credit to Christopher Notfall)

Seizure is one of medical emergencies due to high or low blood sugar. But, seizure due to higher sugar is very rare.

In this post, we refer seizure to low blood sugar level which less than 30 mg/dL. Lower blood sugar means brain does not have glucose enough to make its function properly.

Unfunction brain due to decreasing of neuron cells in its, thus lead to seizure. Some signs of low sugar level could cause seizures are:
- anxiety
- confusion
- sweating
- mumbling
- drowsiness

Untreated seizure could cause loss consciousness, brain damages and even death. While in seizures, the immediate solution could be:
- drinking fruit juice
- eating high caloric snacks
- taking glucose tablets
- taking one spoon honey

How Important Credit Score to Mortgage Rate?

Friday, October 18, 2019
A house, just for illustration

Many Americans believed that there are 3 important things in their life:
- having a family with two kids
- having a house
- having barbecue and fireworks during independent day every year.

In case of a house, some time, certain people can’t have one for “a while” due to several factors, one of them is a “credit score.”

Credit score reflects financial health: the higher the score, the lower the risk. Hence, higher score tend to get loan quite easy with lower mortgage rate.

There are 5 scale range of credit score in the USA, from poor to excellent:
- 300 – 550, poor score
- 550 – 620, subprime score
- 620 – 680, acceptable score
- 680 – 740, good score
- 740 – 850, excellent score


View from a house

To apply for mortgage loans (Fannie Mae or FHA loans), we should have at least 620 credit score. Average credit score for first time home buyers was 684.

As said that higher credit score means best or lower mortgage interest rate. The different of 1% means a lot.

Just to give an idea, if the house price US$ 300 thousands, down payment US$ 50 thousand and 30 year mortgage:
- 5% interest would cost US$ 235 thousands
- 4% interest would cost US$ 180 thousands

It is clear that with 1% less of interest rate, we could save around US$ 55,000. Hope, we should consider our credit score, before applying mortgage loan.

MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment Unit 4 – Part 2

Thursday, October 17, 2019
Abstract, painted by Jackson Pollock

A Random Variable:
9. The missing probability value (under the number 4) in the random variable table above is: 0.15
Steps to find answer:
1 - (0.10+0.15+0.25+0.10+0.10+0.15) = 0.15

10. The sum of the probabilites in the second row of any random variable table like the one above should equal (round to 3 decimal places): 1
Steps to find answer:
Based on theory that for any Random Variables, sum of probabilities should be 1 (one)

11. Read section 4.4.1 in the book (Yakir, 2011).  Do the numbers in the table above (for the random variable) represent a data sample (Yes/No)? No
Steps to find answer:
It is because the Table above represents the sample space.


Painted by Jackson Pollock

12. In the random variable table shown above, the value in the second row represents the cumulative probability of the corresponding values in the first row (True/False) : FALSE
Steps to find answer:
It is because the row represents the individual probability for each of the sample space. the probability value for the last entry is 1.

13. The probability that a randomly selected value from this random value will be less than or equal to 3 is : 0.6
Steps to find answer: P(X<=3) = 0.10+0.15+0.25+0.10 = 0.60

14. What is the probability that a randomly selected value from the random variable would be exactly 1.5?
Answer: ZERO

15. Review section 4.4 in the book (Yakir, 2011), especially pages 57—58.  The expectation of the random variable is: 2.95
Steps to find answer:
E(X) = 0*0.10 + 1*0.15 + 2*0.25 + 3*0.10 + 4*0.15 + 5*0.10 + 6*0.15 = 2.95


Painted by Jackson Pollock

16. To find the expectation of a random variable by using a relative frequency table, you can add the values in the first row of the table and divide by the number of columns in the table (True/False): FALSE
Steps to find answer: We use formula to find the expectation of a random variable as of to answer question 15

17. Study Yakir (2011) pp. 57-59 and solved problems 4.1.6-4.1.8.  The (population) standard deviation of the random variable above is (round to 3 decimal places): 1.909
(hint, you can not put values from the table into the sd() function because the sd() function does not adjust for the probabilities).
Steps to find answer:
E(X^2) = 0*0.10 + 1*0.15 + 4*0.25 + 9*0.10 + 16*0.15 + 25*0.10 + 36*0.15 = 12.35
So, Standard deviation = (E(X^2)-(E(X))^2)^0.5 = (12.35-2.952)^0.5 = 1.909

18. If you have already calculated the standard deviation of a data sample, what is the next thing to do to find the variance:
Answer:
Variance is equal to square of standard deviance
E(X^2) = 0*0.10 + 1*0.15 + 4*0.25 + 9*0.10 + 16*0.15 + 25*0.10 + 36*0.15 = 12.35


# Continue to part 3

Why Puffin Birds Population are Decreasing?

Tuesday, October 15, 2019
Lonely Puffin bird

Puffin birds or Atlantic puffin birds (Fratercula arctica) look cute for me, because of their colors, especially multi colors of their bill.

They are found mainly in the colder areas such as:
- Iceland
- North West Europe
- Arctic fringes
- Eastern North America
- across Atlantic Ocean.

Unfortunately, Puffin birds population are decreasing in the last 15 years due to many factors.

Iceland has the most Puffin bird population in the world, experienced lost of million birds.

Birds were estimated to decrease, from 7 million of 15 years ago to 5 million only in the present time in Iceland alone.

The main causes are climate changes. Some experts said that over fishing is also lead to decreasing of Puffin birds population. 


Hunting of puffin birds in Iceland
(credit to Josh Haner, The New York Times).

Fishes and crustaceans are source of foods for Puffin birds, but the birds prefer fish than crustacean. The fish includes:
- sand eels
- herring
- hake
- capelin

Some of these small fishes are caught by commercial fishing, contributed to depletion of fish population, hence effect on bird’s food supply.

In case of Iceland that hunting is one of main causes to birds number. The Iceland and Faroe island people consume puffin birds.

As traditional cuisine, what Icelanders and Faroe islanders do with puffin birds:
- eat fresh heart of birds
- grill the bird
- smoke the meat
- consume bird’s eggs

However, declining of Puffin birds is every where, thus “the International Union for Conservation of Nature” had listed the birds as vulnerable (threaten to endanger in near future).

Have you seen Puffin birds? Where?

Do You Know these by Catching Fish Species?

Sunday, October 13, 2019
Pollock fillet (credit to Gimli Fish Market)

We knew the most favorite seafood eaten by American, unfortunately those fishes are not sustainable (I am please if you had read my previous post: Why Consuming Trash Fish could Help Environmental Protection?).

In addition to tuna, salmon and shrimps, the most eaten seafood are following:
- Cod
- Atlantic halibut
- Winter skate
- Bluefin tuna.

Unfortunately, the last tree (Atlantic halibut, Winter skate and Bluefin tuna) are enlisted as threatening, and even endangering fish species.

Consumer like us, and seafood restaurants should consider to consume friendly environmentally species.


Delicious dogfish (credit to Pedro Barbosa)

There are plenty of by catching fish species, and they are sustainable, delicious with reasonable price.

Here by catching fish sold in the market:
- Scup, called as silver bass too.
- Dog fish, some countries called it as rock salmon
- Sea robin
- Acadian red fish
- Ground fish


Scup fish (credit to Flatiron)

Ground fish is fish that live on the bottom of sea. Some species getting popular in the US market.

Several species of ground fishes are:
- Pollock
- Flounders (gray, summer, winter and yellow tail flounders)
- Haddock, getting highly demand and expensive
- Red fish

I love Pollock, flounders and red fish. I grilled or bake Pollock and flounders. For read fish, I used a traditional recipe.


For seafood lovers, let us expand our species choices rather than unsustainable, threatened and endangered species only.