Why Many Big Cities are Sinking?

Friday, August 30, 2019
Jakarta, Indonesian capital

Many big cities which have roles as business centers, historical tourist destinations and capitals faced what we call as “sinking cities.”

The cities are spreading from industry to developing countries, they are:
- capitals (Jakarta – Indonesia, Lagos – Nigeria, Washington – USA, and Beijing - China)
- historical city (Venice – Italy)
- business centers (Houston – Texas, Long Beach – California).

The sinking rate is astonishing, from 0.4 inches (1 cm) to 10 inches (25 cm) per year.

Jakarta have been sinking for 4 meter (12 feet) since 1970. The rate of sinking could reach at speed of 10 inches (25 cm) per year on some parts of city. The highest in the world.

The sinking leads to damages of sewage and drain systems, thus, vulnerable to flood. Then, flooding is endemic in every even drizzle (small rains).

The questions then:
- what caused sinking?
- how to prevent sinking further? 

Long Beach, California

The main factor to cause sinking is over using of groundwater. Include exploiting of oil and gas in close by regions in several cities.

There are several ways to stop subsidence:
- Limit or stop groundwater exploiting
- Injecting water into deep underground 

Venice, Italy

Tokyo, Japan formulated the law to halt the sinking by limiting to pump groundwater. This effort was success story where the sinking rate of 9 inches (24 cm) per year reduced to 0.4 inches (1 cm) per year.

Injecting technique has been done by Long Beach, California. After sinking by 30 feet (10 m) for decades, injecting has stabilized the surface dropping.

In addition, surface elevation up to 30 cm was seen in several areas of Long Beach.

Finally, combinations of program to groundwater reducing and injecting have been success to halt further sinking in Venice, Italy. 

The Butterfly Farm is One of Popular Tourist Destinations in Kentucky

Wednesday, August 28, 2019
A butterfly on flowers

I just know two things from Kentucky that are Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) and Horse races.

Both are well known world wide. KFC is one of franchises which could be easily found in the big cities around the globe.

Kentucky Derby is famous event of horse racing in the USA. This is annually race held on the first week of May.

Actually, there are plenty of tourist objects in the Kentucky, some of them are:
- Museum of Louisville Slugger
- National Historic Parks (Abraham Lincln and Cumberland Gap)
- Horse Park of Kentucky
- Newport Aquarium
- Lost River Cave

A black and white spots butterfly

We love to visit “butterfly farm” in Logan Street, Louisville. Not far from Shelby Park neighborhood. Historically as former German immigrants home.

There are at least 3 section of farms:
- butterfly farm
- insectarium
- gift store

Two butterflies

We may observe how butterflies and insects are bred and raised naturally through friendly practices.

Butterflies are coming from regional native, but insects as said by a staff from around the globe (after approved by United States Department of Agriculturer - USDA). 

One of small gardens

Butterfly garden is a kind of butterfly farm which house for butterflies and colorful flowers. A zoo for butterflies.

In the gardens, we may:
- encounter the beauty of butterflies.
- see the metamorphosis process of butterflies
- observe the pollination by butterflies

The last, but not least that we may shop many interesting and unique items. The gift store sell gift made by small business such as:
- jewelry of butterfly models
- preserved specimens
- books and toys for children

I think the place is good for educational purposes for every body, especially for kids. 

China Turns Military Robots to Help Civilians

Monday, August 26, 2019
A Robot resembles to half spider and human
(credit to Ethan Gorstein)

Chinese used to create robots to military purposes, but now turn to multi purposes, include economy and help civilians in natural disaster areas.

I believe that robots are great important in the vulnerable areas due to such as earthquake.

Robots are needed to conduct the following missions:
- searching and finding the victims underneath damaged buildings
- rescue the survivors

Chinese robots have been succeed to search and rescue of many victims and survivors in Chinese Yunnan province earthquake recently. 

A flying robot as a future ambulance
(credit to Valerie Hamilton).

In addition to China, many countries are using robots to cope with disasters in last few years. The results are quite remarkable. Natural disasters include:

- tsunami
- hurricanes
- earth quake
- floods
- landslides
- volcanoes

Good news that from assistance only, then, the USA and Japan have developed Robots to have autonomous.

Robots may able to make own decisions in dangerous environments. Robot would act such as to jump, run or crawl in order to avoid hurdles.

Flying robots are designed to be function as ambulances which could bring injured survivors to nearest hospitals.

Hope, victims of natural disasters could be reduced in near future.

What colors of Lobsters are Rare in Nature?

Saturday, August 24, 2019
Blue lobsters

The colors are important in several marine animals such as crustaceans (crabs, shrimp and lobsters) to hide from to be targeted of predators.

The common color of lobsters in American water are:
- greenish brown
- blackish brown

These colors are perfect adaptation colors, blended to ocean floor in order to conceal from predators.

Surprisingly, fish are common predators of lobster. Crabs are predators too, they eat young lobsters.

Several fish which consume lobsters naturally are:
- cod
- flounder
- tench
- wolfish
- eel
- monkfish
- ocean pout
- dogfish

Yellow lobster, a rare color.

Almost all mainstream medias reported about finding rare color (blue color) of lobster from Maine water recently.

The question then: What colors of Lobsters are Rare in Nature? There are three rare colors:
- blue, 1 in 2 millions
- yellow, 1 in 30 millions
- white or albino, 1 in 100 millions

Common color of American lobsters

Three colors (blue, yellow and white) are bright in the water, thus they are spotted easily by predators.

The white or albino color is the most contrast to the environment, then the most vulnerable. Consequently, the albino lobsters are extremely rare in nature, 1 in 100 millions.

Are rare lobsters expensive? No, not at all. A fisherman offered a blue lobster for US$ 500, but no body interested to bid it.

Normal price is around US$ 40 per lobster in many markets in the USA. Cooked lobsters are little bit expensive.

Have you ever seen rare colors (blue, yellow and white) of lobsters?

Do You Know the Meaning of Your Dreams?

Thursday, August 22, 2019
Illustration, Edvard Munch’s painting

All of us have experienced dreams. Some experts said that dreams are have no meaning at all. It is just brain impulse taken from memory.

Others believed that dreams relate to our daily psychological conditions. Some dreams are happy dreams, others are include:

- anxiety dreams
- nightmare dreams
- normal dreams
- lucid dreams

I myself always have “anxiety dreams” when I was a teenager. The anxiety dreams defined as troublesome dream that more “damaging” compared to a nightmare dream.

Edvard Munch’s painting of a woman

The anxiety dream could have several characteristics, some of them are:
- disquiet
- distress
- restlessness

Painting of Edvard Munch

My anxiety dreams are about:
- chased (my case is chased by usually angry dogs and ghosts)
- falling down from the height
- losing important stuffs

Scientist could “decode” my anxiety dreams now. Dream of being chased is meaning that I am avoiding something in my real life.

I may don’t like with people, locations and decisions, thus, I want to run away from the reality. 

A rural house, painted by Edvard Munch

The meaning of “falling” dream that “dreamers” face negative incidents in her or his daily life. It is including bad and fear to important events.

The events could be:
- fail grade in the school
- get fire from the job
- bad evaluation in job performance

My anxiety dream of losing important stuffs was meaning that my motivation or eagerness to success is leading to down in real life.

What kinds of dream did you face during your kid, teenager, adult or current age?

MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Midterm Exam – part 5

Tuesday, August 20, 2019
A painting of Willem de Kooning

Midterm Part 5 – questions 10 - 15, include its answer (total questions are 16)

Use this information for the next six questions:
category <- c('a', 'g', 'd', 'a', 'd', 'g', 'g', 'd')
speed <- c(60, 83.3, 71, 64.4, 75, 90, 87, 73)

10) The data type of the category object is:
Select one:
a. numeric
b. factor …>Correct
c. complex
d. mixed

11) The data type of the speed object is:
Select one:
a. numeric …>Correct
b. factor
c. complex
d. mixed

Another painting of Willem de Kooning

12) What is the mean of the category object?
Select one:
a. 'a'
b. 'd'
c. 'g'
d. between 'd' and 'g'
e. none of the above …>Correct

13) What is the mean of speed (rounded to 1 decimal place)?
Select one:
a. 75.5…> Correct
b. 90.0
c. 60.0
d. 74.0
> speed <- c(60, 83.3, 71, 64.4, 75, 90, 87, 73)
> mean (speed)
[1] 75.4625

Willem de Kooning’s painting

14) What is the sample standard deviation of the speed data (rounded to 1 decimal place)?
Select one:
a. 113.4
b. 74.5
c. 10.6 …>Correct
d. 90.0
> sd(speed)
[1] 10.64719

15) What is the minimum value of the speed data:
Select one:
a. 15.1
b. 60.0 …>Correct
c. 74.0
d. 14.9
e. 30.0
> min(speed)
[1] 60

# To be continued to part 6

What is the Relationship between Eggs and Diabetes?

Sunday, August 18, 2019
An egg yolk, illustration only

Based on early studies (1970’s), there was indication that diabetes type 2 was stimulated by cholesterol in the eggs.

Not only to diabetes, egg’s cholesterol also believed to contribute to cardiovascular diseases.

Health communities then advocated diabetic patients to limit their eggs daily consumption.

Some experts to suggest to eat no more than 4 eggs per week or every other day for one egg.

Recently, after several researches conducted, scientists “doubted” the relationship between eggs intake and diabetes.

Hence, myth about effect of eggs on diabetes (especially type 2) has been modified.

Hens in a small farm, illustration purpose only

Eggs are nutrient riches content, some of them are:
- lower carbohydrate (0.4 gram)
- lower calories (80 caloric)
- 216 mg cholesterol
- 1.8 gram saturated fat

In addition, eggs are sources of vitamin D, fatty acid and protein that are important to:
- build strong bond.
- oxygen transportation and energy resource (in case no glucose)
- fix and build tissues, make hormone and enzyme in the body. 

Organic eggs in the small farm

In respect to cholesterol and saturated fat, dietitians recommend to consume:
- more than 300 mg per day for cholesterol (no specific limit from dietary guidelines for Americans)
- 11 to 13 gr per day for saturated fat.

It is suggested to eat lower calories and lower carbohydrate foods to manage fluctuation of blood sugar.

Thus, consume 1 egg per day is “good enough” for diabetes type 2 patients.