### MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment 2

Modified of flower sepal and petal illustration.
Part 1 - Answer for questions 1 to 4
The file "flowers.csv" file contains information on measurements of the iris flowers.” “Create an R data frame by the name "flower.data" that contains the data in the file.”
The following R code shows an example of how to round a vector of numbers to zero decimal places and then calculate some statistics using the rounded numbers.”
You might need some of the calculations for this assignment, but you might not need others.”
You would replace example\$years with the name of the R object that you want to analyze (in other programming languages, you might call example\$years a variable).”

> x <- round(example\$years, 0)”
“> freq <- table(x)”
“> rel.freq <- freq/sum(freq)”
“> cumsum(rel.freq)”

Cumulative Frequency Table for Petal Length”
 Value: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cumulative Relative Frequency: 0.16 0.33 0.35 0.58 0.81 0.97 1

Flower is blooming
Question 1. “Sometimes it is difficult to understand data if you do not know what the numbers represent. Provide short definitions of two words: sepal, and petal (be sure to cite your sources even if you paraphrase):”
sepal: “one of the individual leaves or parts of the calyx of a flower. “ (Dictionary.com, 2017).
petal: “one of the often colored segments of the corolla of a flower.” (Dictionary.com, 2017)
Reference

Question 2. “There is a cumulative relative frequency table printed above for petal lengths (using rounded values for petal length).  Below the number 3 in that table is the number .35.  What does .35 represent? (multiple choice).”
a. Three of the flowers had petal length of 0.35.”
“b. There were 0.35 observations that had petal length of 3 (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“c. Of all the flowers measured in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“d. Of all the flowers measured in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“e. A study of all flowers on the planet would show that about 35% had petal lengths of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths).”
Correct is : (d). “Of all the flowers measured in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths).”

A wild flowers

Question 3. “Using only the cumulative relative frequency table printed above combined with some simple paper-and-pencil calculations, which petal length occurs most frequently?”
We can find “most frequency” by calculating. The result shown that Petal length of 4 and 5 occurs “most frequently” with relative frequency is 0.23

Question 4. “Describe how you determined your answer to the previous question (describe the calculations that you used). Do not show R code for this task--it will not be counted as an answer.”
First, find different between Cumulative Relative Frequency of each petal length. Second, observe the results that are the relative frequency of every petal length. I found that the highest value the relative frequency of is 0.23 (Petal length of 4 and 5 occurs most frequently).
1.00 - 0.97 = 0.03
0.97 - 0.81 = 0.16
0.81 - 0.58 = 0.23…..> most frequency of petal length 4
0.58 - 0.35 = 0.23…..> most frequency of petal length 5
0.35 - 0.33 = 0.03
0.33 - 0.16 = 0.16

1. Math is a bit complex for me. I will stick with enjoying the flowers. :)

1. yes, indeed...

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MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment 2
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Flower sepal and petal, illustration only, credit to Medium
Part 1 - Answer for questions 1 to 4
“The file "flowers.csv" file contains information on measurements of the iris flowers.” “Create an R data frame by the name "flower.data" that contains the data in the file.”
“The following R code shows an example of how to round a vector of numbers to zero decimal places and then calculate some statistics using the rounded numbers.”
“You might need some of the calculations for this assignment, but you might not need others.”
“You would replace example\$years with the name of the R object that you want to analyze (in other programming languages, you might call example\$years a variable).”

“> x <- round(example\$years, 0)”
“> freq <- table(x)”
“> rel.freq <- freq/sum(freq)”
“> cumsum(rel.freq)”

“Cumulative Frequency Table for Petal Length"

2. MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment 2
@
Question 2. “There is a cumulative relative frequency table printed above for petal lengths (using rounded values for petal length). Below the number 3 in that table is the number .35. What does .35 represent? (multiple choice).”

“a. Three of the flowers had petal length of 0.35.”
“b. There were 0.35 observations that had petal length of 3 (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“c. Of all the flowers measured in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“d. Of all the flowers measured in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“e. A study of all flowers on the planet would show that about 35% had petal lengths of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths).”

Correct is : (d). “Of all the flowers measured in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths).”

3. MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment 2
@
Question 4. “Describe how you determined your answer to the previous question (describe the calculations that you used). Do not show R code for this task--it will not be counted as an answer.”
First, find different between Cumulative Relative Frequency of each petal length. Second, observe the results that are the relative frequency of every petal length. I found that the highest value the relative frequency of is 0.23 (Petal length of 4 and 5 occurs most frequently).
1.00 - 0.97 = 0.03
0.97 - 0.81 = 0.16
0.81 - 0.58 = 0.23…..> most frequency of petal length 4
0.58 - 0.35 = 0.23…..> most frequency of petal length 5
0.35 - 0.33 = 0.03

0.33 - 0.16 = 0.16

4. MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment 2
-
Part 1 - Answer for questions 1 to 4
“The file "flowers.csv" file contains information on measurements of the iris flowers.” “Create an R data frame by the name "flower.data" that contains the data in the file.”
“The following R code shows an example of how to round a vector of numbers to zero decimal places and then calculate some statistics using the rounded numbers.”
“You might need some of the calculations for this assignment, but you might not need others.”
“You would replace example\$years with the name of the R object that you want to analyze (in other programming languages, you might call example\$years a variable).”

“> x <- round(example\$years, 0)”
“> freq <- table(x)”
“> rel.freq <- freq/sum(freq)”
“> cumsum(rel.freq)”

“Cumulative Frequency Table for Petal Length”

Value:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Cumulative Relative Frequency:

.16
.33
.35
.58
.81
.97
1.00

2. Interesting informations :)

1. Thank you to visit my article:
MATH, 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment 2
@

Question 1. “Sometimes it is difficult to understand data if you do not know what the numbers represent. Provide short definitions of two words: sepal, and petal (be sure to cite your sources even if you paraphrase):”
sepal: “one of the individual leaves or parts of the calyx of a flower. “ (Dictionary.com, 2017).

petal: “one of the often colored segments of the corolla of a flower.” (Dictionary.com, 2017)
Reference

2. MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment 2
@
Question 3. “Using only the cumulative relative frequency table printed above combined with some simple paper-and-pencil calculations, which petal length occurs most frequently?”
We can find “most frequency” by calculating. The result shown that Petal length of 4 and 5 occurs “most frequently” with relative frequency is 0.23

3. MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment 2
@
Question 1. “Sometimes it is difficult to understand data if you do not know what the numbers represent. Provide short definitions of two words: sepal, and petal (be sure to cite your sources even if you paraphrase):”
sepal: “one of the individual leaves or parts of the calyx of a flower. “ (Dictionary.com, 2017).

petal: “one of the often colored segments of the corolla of a flower.” (Dictionary.com, 2017)
Reference

4. MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment 2

3. MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment 2
-
Question 2. “There is a cumulative relative frequency table printed above for petal lengths (using rounded values for petal length). Below the number 3 in that table is the number .35. What does .35 represent? (multiple choice).”

“a. Three of the flowers had petal length of 0.35.”
“b. There were 0.35 observations that had petal length of 3 (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“c. Of all the flowers measured in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“d. Of all the flowers measured in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“e. A study of all flowers on the planet would show that about 35% had petal lengths of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths).”