### MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment 2

Modified of flower sepal and petal illustration.
Part 1 - Answer for questions 1 to 4
The file "flowers.csv" file contains information on measurements of the iris flowers.” “Create an R data frame by the name "flower.data" that contains the data in the file.”
The following R code shows an example of how to round a vector of numbers to zero decimal places and then calculate some statistics using the rounded numbers.”
You might need some of the calculations for this assignment, but you might not need others.”
You would replace example\$years with the name of the R object that you want to analyze (in other programming languages, you might call example\$years a variable).”

> x <- round(example\$years, 0)”
“> freq <- table(x)”
“> rel.freq <- freq/sum(freq)”
“> cumsum(rel.freq)”

Cumulative Frequency Table for Petal Length”
 Value: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Cumulative Relative Frequency: 0.16 0.33 0.35 0.58 0.81 0.97 1

Flower is blooming
Question 1. “Sometimes it is difficult to understand data if you do not know what the numbers represent. Provide short definitions of two words: sepal, and petal (be sure to cite your sources even if you paraphrase):”
sepal: “one of the individual leaves or parts of the calyx of a flower. “ (Dictionary.com, 2017).
petal: “one of the often colored segments of the corolla of a flower.” (Dictionary.com, 2017)
Reference

Question 2. “There is a cumulative relative frequency table printed above for petal lengths (using rounded values for petal length).  Below the number 3 in that table is the number .35.  What does .35 represent? (multiple choice).”
a. Three of the flowers had petal length of 0.35.”
“b. There were 0.35 observations that had petal length of 3 (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“c. Of all the flowers measured in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“d. Of all the flowers measured in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths).”
“e. A study of all flowers on the planet would show that about 35% had petal lengths of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths).”
Correct is : (d). “Of all the flowers measured in this sample 35% had a petal length of 3 or less (after rounding the petal lengths).”

A wild flowers

Question 3. “Using only the cumulative relative frequency table printed above combined with some simple paper-and-pencil calculations, which petal length occurs most frequently?”
We can find “most frequency” by calculating. The result shown that Petal length of 4 and 5 occurs “most frequently” with relative frequency is 0.23

Question 4. “Describe how you determined your answer to the previous question (describe the calculations that you used). Do not show R code for this task--it will not be counted as an answer.”
First, find different between Cumulative Relative Frequency of each petal length. Second, observe the results that are the relative frequency of every petal length. I found that the highest value the relative frequency of is 0.23 (Petal length of 4 and 5 occurs most frequently).
1.00 - 0.97 = 0.03
0.97 - 0.81 = 0.16
0.81 - 0.58 = 0.23…..> most frequency of petal length 4
0.58 - 0.35 = 0.23…..> most frequency of petal length 5
0.35 - 0.33 = 0.03
0.33 - 0.16 = 0.16

### Cantaloupe Grows Well in America

Ripe cantaloupe

I thought the fruit is a Japanese melon variety, but after searching through google, the cantaloupe is from Europe origin. The fact is surprising me.

Fruit was brought to Italy from Armenia. Papal county namely Cantalupo, close to Rome planted this fruits about 200 years ago. French then gave name of Cantaloupe.

In addition to cantaloupe, some Americans also call the fruit as rockmelon, muskmelon, sweet melon and muskmelon.

America produced 13.4 million cwt cantaloupe per year. Production mainly in the states of Arizona, Texas and California.

Cantaloupe sold in a grocery store

American loves to consume melons, include Cantaloupe. A single American consumes 27 pounds melon per year. One of the highest in the world.

We always buy this fruit, especially during late spring to summer seasons. Sweet and fresh.

Slices in a plate

It is said cantaloupe include as a super food due to its nutrient contents. It riches in vitamin A and C.

Cantaloupe also said as “beauty fruit,” because its extracted could be used to prevent wrinkle, to slow down skin aging and improve skin elasticity.

What do you think about cantaloupe?

### What was Relationship between Christian Art and Classical Rome?

Basilica, just for illustration, credit to Romewise
Christianity has strong relationships with the Roman empire at early stage of developments, and even beyond.
At the first century, slow but sure, Christian faith to be adapted by Romans world; many Romans converted to Christianity.
In terms of art, Romans then bring their own art heritage to their new faith; Christian. Roman’s artistic (motif, form and architecture) was applied with new meaning to a new faith and to a new god.

One of Basilica plan, credit to Amundson (2016)
Christian had adopted classical Rome architectures after becoming legal faith in 313 CE. Christian built the early churches by mimicking the basilica (please see above Figure).
As mentioned by writer873 (2012) that basilica is used as a court of law or for public assemblies, and even as marketplaces in ancient Rome.
Thus, basilica is evolved as a symbol of authority in Roman empire to be symbol of worship in early Christians.
Other unique things in early Christianity that they borrowed many artistic motifs from the Romans, some of them are philosopher figure; shepherd figure and festive meal motif.
Christ and his apostles are depicted as a philosopher figure with characterized by a teacher wearing a toga and holding a scroll.
Then, Christians adopted the shepherd figure to portray Christ; a young man with a sheep on his shoulders. In respect to the festive meal motif, Christians adopted the theme for celebration symbol.

References
Amundson, JA. 2016. ARC 231: image collection for Jewish & Early Christian. Retrieved from http://jhenniferamundson.net/arc-231-2/arc-231-image-collection/arc-231-image-collection-for-jewish-early-christian/

### Single Price Stores: Everything One Dollar

Health and beauty hair products

Capitalists not only about “efficiency” to reduce price, but also about finding market segment and off course profit margin.

Due to economic crisis in 2008, US government provides lower tax to small business. Number of stores which sell one dollar item increases dramatically across America.

In addition to cheap products, the retails give jobs to community as well.

If you never visit America, some stores selling one dollar products are following:
- 99 cents only stores
- Daiso
- Dollar Tree
- Dollar General
- Real Deals
- Family Dollar
- Fed’s
- K dollar

What items the stores sell? Almost everything of daily need. From party supplies to toys, from stationery to craft supplies.

You may have a question: how stores could offer cheap products? The answer that store just gains on slim profit margin than any other similar stores.

Items sold are surplus over stock from network companies. Items are often produced from overseas such as Mexico, Haiti or China.

Baby relate things

I will not buy all items I need in the dollar stores, but, yes for some items. They are categorized as:

# Beauty products:

## Stationery
- My pens, pencil and papers come from one dollar stores

### Accessories
- I buy brushes, mirror, comb and any relate accessories from this kind of stores

#### Kitchen tool and supplies
- plates (paper, ceramic, plastic), cups (ceramic, glasses and plastic), bake wares and any kitchen tools.

Hair Accessories

I avoid to buy products such as shampoo, hair dyeing, supplement food, canned and processing foods.

The reasons, first, due to quality and not well known brand. The second is due to that I could find bargain price in other grocery stores, sometimes.

### Do You Want to Buy a Reasonable Cheap House?

A simple house with price US\$ 4,900, credit to Amazon

Housing prices are increasing in the last several years in the USA, then, modular, prefab or factory houses are booming to fill the gap.

The price is reasonable, you even could buy through online. Many online stores sell these kinds of houses. One of them is Amazon.

The price as low as US\$ 4,900 (Euro 4,400) to as expensive as US\$ 40,000 (Euro 36,000). But the most favorites are less than US\$ 10,000 (Euro 8,900).

Houses with price US\$ 7,250 (Euro 6,500) are sold out.

House with price of US\$ 7,250, credit to Amazon

Size for US\$ 4900 house is 113 square feet, while size for US\$ 7250 house is 172 square feet. Yes, very small size but better than nothing or than homeless on the street.

However, there are houses with size large enough. The price is above US\$ 10 thousand, and size is more than 292 square feet.

In addition to permanent house, this 292 square feet house may be modified for business purposes such as to be a private office and a retail store.

If you order from Amazon, then the online company will send to you with no extra cost, free shipping.

This kind of house is “build by your self”. Two persons could assemble the house as quick as 8 hours to as long as 3 days.

The time to complete assembling is quite reasonable. Not long.

Do you want to have one?

### What is the Largest Buddha Temple in the World?

Borobudur temple
I familiar with one of Buddha temples, because I visited the temple several times, namely Borobudur. The temple is the largest Buddha temple in the world.
Uniquely, the temple was built by two million blocks of stones and no interior for worship purposes.
The base occupies around 2,500 square meters with a 123×123 meters square in size and 4 meters in high.
The body (wall) contains 5 square platforms, where each of the platform was diminishing by heights.
Then, if measured from the ground, the temple has a height of 35 meters (115 feet). Quite higher for an ancient building.
Vertically, the building was divided by three major divisions, they are base, body (wall), and top.

Stupa (contain holy relics) on the top of Borobudur temple

Base is pile of stones, like strong foundations in other historical building in the world. Body (wall) is carved with “reliefs” to depict daily activities of ancient Indonesia.
On the top of temple, there is space for Buddhists to perform their worship. Not like other religions, Buddhist come to temple only for certain celebrations.
The temple is located in central Java, Indonesia. Distance is around 564 km (350 mile) from capital, Jakarta to Magelang regency or close by Jogjakarta, where Borobudur is.
Many public transportations provide service to visit Borobudur: planes, trains and buses.
You may know (heard) about Angkor Wat, Cambodia. The Angkor Wat temple was originally Hindu’s, then transformed to Buddha.
Borobudur is consistently used as Buddha temple since it was constructed in 850 AD until recently.
Have you visited any Buddha temples?

### A Small Project to Grow Strawberry in My Backyard

Two Strawberries

During this year spring season (couple months ago in our area), I planned a small project in my own backyard to grow strawberry in the several plastic pots.

The strawberry likes both shade and direct sun. The berry needs at least 6 hours sun on daily basis.

It is why strawberry grows well in the spring or late summer in nature. Sun light not so strong, but enough as needed.

Yes, Strawberry may grow in the small size containers. I used plastic pots with size of 6 inches height and 4.5 inches width. Very small.

Since growing in small pots, I need to water the plants more frequently, at least once a day.

What is the result?

A strawberry plant in the small plastic pot.

One of plants grew well, and produced several strawberries. The taste is better than strawberries sold in many grocery stores. Little bit sweeter.

I was so happy. I thought that I could grow strawberry at least for my own consumption during spring or summer seasons.

A sweet little red strawberry

Unfortunately, other growing berries from other pots are “stolen” by wild squirrels. The animals starts to pick even “buds” of fruits.

It seems that I invited the wild animals come to my backyard and in front of my back doors.

I need to rethinking other methods, include green house and hydroponic techniques by next year.

### MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Discussion 2

Illustration of Qualitative Vs Quantitative
Factors are qualitative data that are associated with categorization or the description of an attribute. Factors are often (but not always) represented with words, like colors or names of things.”
On the other hand, numeric data are generated by numeric measurements. R can store values as factors or numbers, but sometimes you have a choice of how to represent values.”

1) I have two apples, one banana, one cherry. Does it make sense to calculate the "average" of these things? Would you code that as a factor or a numeric value in R?
No, we cannot make average on two apples, one banana, one cherry, because they are different kind of fruits, not number.
Then, I would code Fruit as factors, since fruit is qualitative not quantitative.

2) I have four quiz scores: 94, 93, 85, and 0. What is the mean (average) of my quiz scores? Would you code this as a factor or a numeric value in R?
I use R to find out the mean (average), the result is following:
> x<-c (94, 93, 85, 0)
> mean(x)
[1] 68
So, mean (average) = 68
Then, I have coded the four quiz scores (94, 93, 85, and 0) as numeric value in R

A mural painting
3) In another class, I received these grades on my quizzes: two As, one B, and one F. What is the mean (average) of my grades? Would you code that as a factor or a numeric value in R?
No, average is not possible here, because the letter grades are not numbers.
I would code the grades (letters) as factors in R

A colorful mural painting

4) How would you explain the difference in mean values obtained in #2 and #3 above?
We cannot make different between #2 and #3 above, since #2 is numeric whereas #3 is factor. We should convert factor to numeric first, before doing subtraction operation.

### Buy What You Need in Home Depot

Let’s cut it

We always buy home relate tools and construction products from one of American biggest retail companies, called Home Depot.

The first reason is quite fair distance from our neighborhood. The other reasons due cheaper price and variety of supplies.

Many years we wonder how to bring things: woods, plywood, pipes and relate home material if larger or longer than our Matrix 2008 car.

Yes, if we buy such as many wooden beams, woods and wooden pools, then we would rent a small truck. But, if one piece of 5 meter wood, should we rent a truck?

Wood beam sold in Home Depot

We just currently notice that Home Depot provides do it yourself service. We not only cut the wood suitable to carry by our own car, but also pay the price as what we need. Neither more nor less than.

As an example, we cut 100 cm (3 feet) wood beam and pay for US\$6 instead of paying US\$18 for 300 cm (10 feet). Cheap and easy to carry.

At previously, we wasting our money, since we always buy more than what we need. Un-used material either we store in storage or throw away as a garbage. Unfortunately.

### What Types of Edible Mushrooms do You Like?

Mushroom in the small plastic

Mushroom is one of my favorites, delicious and healthy. There are more than 50 thousand types of mushroom live in tropical region, southern and northern hemispheres.

They are used for many purposes, include medical and food resources. Not much percentage are poisonous, around 1% to 2% of 50 thousand kinds only

Many kinds of commercial mushrooms sold in the market. We could buy in the groceries stores or farmer markets.

Look like long “small sticks or strings”

Some types of famous edible mushroom are following:

- Shitake mushroom
- Cremini mushroom
- White button mushroom
- Maitake mushroom
- Oyster mushroom
- Beech mushrooms
- Porcino mushrooms
- Portobello mushroom

Taken from different angle

One of favorite mushrooms is called Enoki. In nature, this mushrooms grow on tree name Enoki in Japanese.

Enoki is Chinese hackberry tree with scientific name Celtis sinensis. Enoki also grows on trees such as persimmon and mulberry trees.

Uniquely, contrast colors between natural and cultivated mushrooms where dark brown for wild, but white for cultivated Enoki mushrooms.

The taste is good and price quite cheap, US\$ 2 per oz (28 gram) in grocery stores, include Walmart super center.

The mushroom is excellent for soup, salad, stir fry and noodle dishes (could replace noodle).

Enoki mushroom contains highly nutrients, few of them are:
- Niacin
- Folate
- Thiamin
- Potassium

Interestingly, this mushroom contains zero cholesterol, fat, sugar and sodium. Contain lower calory. Thus good for a diet food.

Have you tasted Enoki mushroom? What Types of Edible Mushrooms do You Like?

### Have You been in Salt Lake City, Utah?

One of city entrance

I just passed through Salt Lake City in one of my trips to the North States. The city, in my opinion is calm and peace.

No crowd and rush hour compared to Chicago, New York, Los Angeles and even New Orleans in the southern state.

In respect to population is quite lower, around 200 thousand people only. Surprisingly, 51% is Mormon. We can assume that it is capital of Mormon.

If you never stay or visit USA, you might not know what Mormon is.

I quoted from Google “Mormons believe that Jesus paid for the sins of the world and that all people can be saved through his atonement. Mormons accept Christ's atonement through faith, repentance, formal covenants or ordinances such as baptism, and consistently trying to live a Christ-like life.”

A station for light rail system.

Public transportation is better than other cities across America. City has a light rail transportation to cover inner city and suburbs.

In addition to light train, the city also provide commuter trains and buses. We could access almost any part of city by public transportations.

Airport, ski resorts, public buildings and important public entertains are connected with public transportation networks.

The Mormon church

You can buy a round trip ticket from down town to any available places you wish. You could back to down town quickly and easily.

Do not worry, there are some trains on Saturday and Sunday, from early morning to mid night.

Have you been in or planning to go to Salt Lake City?