Can Abnormal Blood Sugar Lead to Seizure?

Sunday, October 20, 2019
Range of blood sugar level (credit to Melissa Conrad Stoppler)

Fluctuation in sugar level may be faced by both non-diabetic and diabetic patients on daily basis due to several factors:
- illness
- insulin level
- metabolic problems

So, what is normal range? General speaking, what we call as normal range of blood sugar level is from 70 mg/dL to 130 mg/dL.

Abnormal is a state where the level below or higher than normal range. The range of pre-diabetes and diabetes are following:
- 140 to 199 mg/dL, prediabetes range
- above 200 mg/dL, diabetes

Too lower or too higher if sugar level is under 54 mg/dL or above 400 mg/dL could be categorized as medical emergency.


Diabetic seizure, just for illustration
(credit to Christopher Notfall)

Seizure is one of medical emergencies due to high or low blood sugar. But, seizure due to higher sugar is very rare.

In this post, we refer seizure to low blood sugar level which less than 30 mg/dL. Lower blood sugar means brain does not have glucose enough to make its function properly.

Unfunction brain due to decreasing of neuron cells in its, thus lead to seizure. Some signs of low sugar level could cause seizures are:
- anxiety
- confusion
- sweating
- mumbling
- drowsiness

Untreated seizure could cause loss consciousness, brain damages and even death. While in seizures, the immediate solution could be:
- drinking fruit juice
- eating high caloric snacks
- taking glucose tablets
- taking one spoon honey

How Important Credit Score to Mortgage Rate?

Friday, October 18, 2019
A house, just for illustration

Many Americans believed that there are 3 important things in their life:
- having a family with two kids
- having a house
- having barbecue and fireworks during independent day every year.

In case of a house, some time, certain people can’t have one for “a while” due to several factors, one of them is a “credit score.”

Credit score reflects financial health: the higher the score, the lower the risk. Hence, higher score tend to get loan quite easy with lower mortgage rate.

There are 5 scale range of credit score in the USA, from poor to excellent:
- 300 – 550, poor score
- 550 – 620, subprime score
- 620 – 680, acceptable score
- 680 – 740, good score
- 740 – 850, excellent score


View from a house

To apply for mortgage loans (Fannie Mae or FHA loans), we should have at least 620 credit score. Average credit score for first time home buyers was 684.

As said that higher credit score means best or lower mortgage interest rate. The different of 1% means a lot.

Just to give an idea, if the house price US$ 300 thousands, down payment US$ 50 thousand and 30 year mortgage:
- 5% interest would cost US$ 235 thousands
- 4% interest would cost US$ 180 thousands

It is clear that with 1% less of interest rate, we could save around US$ 55,000. Hope, we should consider our credit score, before applying mortgage loan.

MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment Unit 4 – Part 2

Thursday, October 17, 2019
Abstract, painted by Jackson Pollock

A Random Variable:
9. The missing probability value (under the number 4) in the random variable table above is: 0.15
Steps to find answer:
1 - (0.10+0.15+0.25+0.10+0.10+0.15) = 0.15

10. The sum of the probabilites in the second row of any random variable table like the one above should equal (round to 3 decimal places): 1
Steps to find answer:
Based on theory that for any Random Variables, sum of probabilities should be 1 (one)

11. Read section 4.4.1 in the book (Yakir, 2011).  Do the numbers in the table above (for the random variable) represent a data sample (Yes/No)? No
Steps to find answer:
It is because the Table above represents the sample space.


Painted by Jackson Pollock

12. In the random variable table shown above, the value in the second row represents the cumulative probability of the corresponding values in the first row (True/False) : FALSE
Steps to find answer:
It is because the row represents the individual probability for each of the sample space. the probability value for the last entry is 1.

13. The probability that a randomly selected value from this random value will be less than or equal to 3 is : 0.6
Steps to find answer: P(X<=3) = 0.10+0.15+0.25+0.10 = 0.60

14. What is the probability that a randomly selected value from the random variable would be exactly 1.5?
Answer: ZERO

15. Review section 4.4 in the book (Yakir, 2011), especially pages 57—58.  The expectation of the random variable is: 2.95
Steps to find answer:
E(X) = 0*0.10 + 1*0.15 + 2*0.25 + 3*0.10 + 4*0.15 + 5*0.10 + 6*0.15 = 2.95


Painted by Jackson Pollock

16. To find the expectation of a random variable by using a relative frequency table, you can add the values in the first row of the table and divide by the number of columns in the table (True/False): FALSE
Steps to find answer: We use formula to find the expectation of a random variable as of to answer question 15

17. Study Yakir (2011) pp. 57-59 and solved problems 4.1.6-4.1.8.  The (population) standard deviation of the random variable above is (round to 3 decimal places): 1.909
(hint, you can not put values from the table into the sd() function because the sd() function does not adjust for the probabilities).
Steps to find answer:
E(X^2) = 0*0.10 + 1*0.15 + 4*0.25 + 9*0.10 + 16*0.15 + 25*0.10 + 36*0.15 = 12.35
So, Standard deviation = (E(X^2)-(E(X))^2)^0.5 = (12.35-2.952)^0.5 = 1.909

18. If you have already calculated the standard deviation of a data sample, what is the next thing to do to find the variance:
Answer:
Variance is equal to square of standard deviance
E(X^2) = 0*0.10 + 1*0.15 + 4*0.25 + 9*0.10 + 16*0.15 + 25*0.10 + 36*0.15 = 12.35


# Continue to part 3

Why Puffin Birds Population are Decreasing?

Tuesday, October 15, 2019
Lonely Puffin bird

Puffin birds or Atlantic puffin birds (Fratercula arctica) look cute for me, because of their colors, especially multi colors of their bill.

They are found mainly in the colder areas such as:
- Iceland
- North West Europe
- Arctic fringes
- Eastern North America
- across Atlantic Ocean.

Unfortunately, Puffin birds population are decreasing in the last 15 years due to many factors.

Iceland has the most Puffin bird population in the world, experienced lost of million birds.

Birds were estimated to decrease, from 7 million of 15 years ago to 5 million only in the present time in Iceland alone.

The main causes are climate changes. Some experts said that over fishing is also lead to decreasing of Puffin birds population. 


Hunting of puffin birds in Iceland
(credit to Josh Haner, The New York Times).

Fishes and crustaceans are source of foods for Puffin birds, but the birds prefer fish than crustacean. The fish includes:
- sand eels
- herring
- hake
- capelin

Some of these small fishes are caught by commercial fishing, contributed to depletion of fish population, hence effect on bird’s food supply.

In case of Iceland that hunting is one of main causes to birds number. The Iceland and Faroe island people consume puffin birds.

As traditional cuisine, what Icelanders and Faroe islanders do with puffin birds:
- eat fresh heart of birds
- grill the bird
- smoke the meat
- consume bird’s eggs

However, declining of Puffin birds is every where, thus “the International Union for Conservation of Nature” had listed the birds as vulnerable (threaten to endanger in near future).

Have you seen Puffin birds? Where?

Do You Know these by Catching Fish Species?

Sunday, October 13, 2019
Pollock fillet (credit to Gimli Fish Market)

We knew the most favorite seafood eaten by American, unfortunately those fishes are not sustainable (I am please if you had read my previous post: Why Consuming Trash Fish could Help Environmental Protection?).

In addition to tuna, salmon and shrimps, the most eaten seafood are following:
- Cod
- Atlantic halibut
- Winter skate
- Bluefin tuna.

Unfortunately, the last tree (Atlantic halibut, Winter skate and Bluefin tuna) are enlisted as threatening, and even endangering fish species.

Consumer like us, and seafood restaurants should consider to consume friendly environmentally species.


Delicious dogfish (credit to Pedro Barbosa)

There are plenty of by catching fish species, and they are sustainable, delicious with reasonable price.

Here by catching fish sold in the market:
- Scup, called as silver bass too.
- Dog fish, some countries called it as rock salmon
- Sea robin
- Acadian red fish
- Ground fish


Scup fish (credit to Flatiron)

Ground fish is fish that live on the bottom of sea. Some species getting popular in the US market.

Several species of ground fishes are:
- Pollock
- Flounders (gray, summer, winter and yellow tail flounders)
- Haddock, getting highly demand and expensive
- Red fish

I love Pollock, flounders and red fish. I grilled or bake Pollock and flounders. For read fish, I used a traditional recipe.


For seafood lovers, let us expand our species choices rather than unsustainable, threatened and endangered species only.

What is Hypoxia and How Its Relates to Diabetes?

Friday, October 11, 2019
Illustration effect of hypoxia on cells or tissues
(credit to Osmosis, YouTube)

We discussed about two metabolic factors that are glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity at previous articles: How Lipotoxicity Relate to Diabetes? And Effect of Metabolic on Beta Cells in the Pancreas.

We will talk little bit about another metabolic factor called as “hypoxia” in this post.

As mentioned by WebMd (2019) that hypoxia is condition of low oxygen level in the our tissues due to low oxygen level in the blood.

Hence, blood can’t bring enough oxygen to the tissue's need. It could lead to injure of cells or dysfunctional of several organs in the body.

Depend on length of time, effect of hypoxia on human body (organs) is range from almost no problem to mild problem to death:
- headaches
- difficult to breath (increase breathing rate)
- increase rate of heart
- body not work properly
- brain stops to function
- lifelong brain damage
- death



Illustration of wide effects of hypoxia (credit First Aid).

Then, the question might be asked: what is relationship between hypoxia and diabetes?

Some literature said that hypoxia and excess nutrient to be trigger of obesity, then cause glucose intolerance and diabetes.

It is suggested to prevent hypoxia and excess nutrient in order to manage body weight by doing:
- consume healthy diet
- exercises regularly
- minimize to use pharmacological theraphy or drugs medication

Reference

WebMd. 2019. What is Hypoxia. Retrieved from https: webmd.

Would You Like to Try Uber Helicopter?

Wednesday, October 9, 2019
Uber Helicopter (credit to Interia Tech).

As far as I know, Uber provides helicopters in several cities or places, but three cities are well known, they are:
- Dubai (United Arab Emirates).
- Las Vegas (USA)
- New York (USA)

The services mainly from or to airport. The cost of ride is varied in Dubai, Las Vegas and New York.

In Dubai, group of 6 individuals may book a helicopter for AED 530 (US$ 145) per individual. If one person books, it would cost for AED 630 (US$ 172).

The distance is around 34 km (21 miles), flight from the Palm Jumeirah resort to down town, Dubai.

The Palm Jumeirah is an artificial island, famous for luxuries of hotel, apartment and restaurants. 


Landing Uber Helicopter (credit to glamour).

In Las Vegas, Uber Chopper not only for transport from and to airport, but also provides views of the city. A group of 4 – 8 people could cost US$ 100 per person.

In New York, we may take helicopter from Manhattan to JF. Kennedey airport or vice versa. The cost around US$ 205. It includes car service from our house to helipad.

By next few years, 3 other cities are planning to provide Uber Helicopter services:
- Dallas, Texas (USA).
- Los Angeles (USA)
- Melbourne (Australia)

Yes, the cost is quite expensive, but will advantage if we ride in rush hours in crowd cities.

Would you like to try Uber Helicopter? Should Copper services are available in your city? 

MATH 1280 Introduction to Statistics – Assignment Unit 4 – Part 1

Tuesday, October 8, 2019
Abstract curve, painted by Wassily Kandinsky

Tasks
Data:
1. Using the list of 17 numbers at the top of the page, the median of this data, rounded to two decimal places, is: 2.8.

Steps to find the answer:
Raw Data: 7.2, 1.2, 1.8, 2.8, 18, -1.9, -0.1, -1.5, 13.0, 3.2, -1.1, 7.0, 0.5, 3.9, 2.1, 4.1, 6.5
Sort data to be:
-1.9, -1.5, -1.1, -0.1, 0.5, 1.2, 1.8, 2.1, 2.8, 3.2, 3.9, 4.1, 6.5, 7.0, 7.2, 13.0, and 18.0
Thus, median is: 2.8

Verify by R:
> x <-c(7.2, 1.2, 1.8, 2.8, 18, -1.9, -0.1, -1.5, 13.0, 3.2, -1.1, 7.0, 0.5, 3.9, 2.1, 4.1, 6.5)
> median (x)
[1] 2.8


2. If you find the median using the original method (paper and pencil), you have to arrange the values into numeric order (True/False): TRUE
Step to find answers:
Please see my answer at question 1 above


Colorful houses, painted by Wassily Kandinsky


3. The interquartile range for this data is (round each value to 3 decimal places): 6.55
Step to find answers:
Lower quartile (Q1) = 1/4(n + 1) = 1/4(17+1) th value = 4.5th value = (-0.1+0.5)/2 = 0.2
Upper quartile(Q3)= 3/4 (n + 1) th value = 3/4(17+1)th value= 13.5th value= (6.5+7.0)/2=6.75

Thus, interquartile range (IQR) = (Upper Quartile) – (Lower Quartile) = 6.75 – 0.2 = 6.55

Verify by R:
> IQR(x)
[1] 6
Hence, the result slightly different with doing by hand


4. The formula for calculating the interquartile range is:
(show the formula and a citation to the source that you used).
Answer:
Interquartile range (IQR) = (Upper Quartile) – (Lower Quartile) or IQR = Q3 – Q1

Reference
Stat Trek. (2017). Statistics and Probability Dictionary. Interquartile Range. Retrieved from http://stattrek.com/statistics/dictionary.aspx?definition=Interquartile%20range


Abstract, painted by Wassily Kandinsky


5. Using techniques that we have studied in this course, the upper and lower cutoff points (rounded to three decimal places) for identifying outliers (in the given data sample) are: 16.575 and -9.625
(this is not a request to show any outliers--just the cutoff points that would determine what constitutes an outlier).  You may round to three decimal places.

Steps to find answer:
Upper cutoff = Q3 + (1.5 * IQR) = 6.75 + (1.5*6.55) = 16.575
Lower cutoff = Q1 – (1.5 * IQR) = 0.2 – (1.5*6.55) = 0.2 - 9.825 = -9.625


6. The summary() command shows a list of outliers, if there are any (True/False): FALSE
Verify by R:
> x <-c(7.2, 1.2, 1.8, 2.8, 18, -1.9, -0.1, -1.5, 13.0, 3.2, -1.1, 7.0, 0.5, 3.9, 2.1, 4.1, 6.5)
> summary(x)
Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max.
-1.900 0.500 2.800 3.924 6.500 18.000
Thus, no list of outliers


Painted by Wassily Kandinsky


7. The list of outlier values is: 18
(if there are none, write "NA").
Steps to find answer:
First we find upper and lower cutoff as at question 5.
Since we have 16.575 and -9.625 as upper and lower cutoff, thus 18 is the only value outside upper and lower cutoff


8. The standard deviation of the list of 17 numbers is (round to 3 decimal places):
5.2495 = 5.25
Step to find answer:
We find standard deviation by following formula:

SD= 5.2495 = 5.25
Verify by R:
> sd(x)
[1] 5.249468






# To be continued to part 2